Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Jain Swamber Temple Inside Bohar Gate Multan

Introduction
Jaina Mandir or Jaina temple belongs to the Suembra Sect of Jain Religion. It is located near Chowk Bazar, near Masjid Phool Hathan, Inside Bohar Gate, Inner Walled City Multan. It is one of 52 historic places to restore in Multan.

How Old
Perhaps 100 year old Mandir

Title Photo
Historic Jain Temple Inside Bohar Gate Multan
Location Map
Located inside Bohar Gate near Chowk Bazar of Multan City
Access to the temple is through a narrow street in front of Phool Hattan Mosque.

Few Photos

Historic Jain Mandir / temple in Multan

Historic Jain Mandar / temple in Multan

Historic Jaina Mandir / temple in Multan

Historic Jain Mandir / temple in Multan ceiling

Historic Jain Mandir / temple in Multan


      















JAIN MANDIR (JAINA TEMPLE) MANDIR JAIN SWAMBER

Monument
JAIN MANDIR (JAINA TEMPLE) MANDIR JAIN SWAMBER
Location
CHOWK BAZAAR NEAR MASJID PHOOL HATTAN, Inside Bohar Gate
Status
Not Protected
Owner
Evacuee Property Trust Board, Govt. of Pakistan (EPTB) (Non-Muslim Auqaf)
Use
FORMER: JAIN TEMPLE
PRESENT: MADRASSA (Jamia Hamidia Taalim-ul-Quran)
Period / Date
CIRCA 1850.
Historical Notes
The building is usually referred to by local people as Jain Mandar but there is not a single reference to it in any published work on Multan except a mention of its name by Ikramul Haq (p. 128). It is still stranger that in voluminous literature that is available on the history and the people of Multan there is no mention of existence of Jain community living in this city – presently or in the past. The 1923-24 Edition of Multan Gazetteer devotes about ten pages to the Non-Christian Religions of Multan (118-127) but there is not a single word about the presence of Jain community in Multan. Only in the 1901-02 edition of District Gazetteer of Multan (Extracts p. 109) there is an oblique reference to the existence of this community. Among various characters of styles of writing among the people of Multan the Compiler mentions the existence of type of writing called “Bhabra Akhar” i.e. “alphabet of the Bhabras” – A Bhabra in the Punjab is always an equivalent of a Jain Businessman. Fortunately, Ikram-ul Huq also informs us that this Jaina Mandir belongs to the Suembra Sect of Jain Religion – the other sect being Digambra.
Description / Main Features
The temple is built upon a raised platform which has a series of shops at street level. A steep flight of steps leads up to the entrance which in turn takes the visitors to the central hall of the temple. The hall is two-storey high and is surrounded by chambers on both the levels. Ceiling of this hall is decorated with paintings and mirrors and is an excellent work of art and fortunately well preserved. There are three arched openings on each of four sides of the hall. Some other paintings on walls and remnants of sculptures are also still intact, which is a rare phenomenon for a building which has been in use as an Islamic madrassa forsome time now. Above the main hall is a usual temple sakhara with melon shaped capping and a pinnacle or kalas. Door frames are very well carved and, at places, are fitted with beautiful jalli’s. The wood carving on the main entrance door reads out the original name of the temple “Shiri Vishwanath Jain Shwetambar Mandir” At one place there is a large size wall painting on a large marble slab depicting what appears to be a road map showing access to some religious site. This is similar to the partly carved and partly painted map on two marble slabs from a Jaina Temple (Bhabra Mandar) in Gujranwala now on display in Lahore Museum. There are two stairs leading to a basement/lower ground floor on the two extreme wings. A first floor has room looking down on to the main hall in the centre.
Access / Environs
Access to the temple is through a narrow street in front of Phool Hattan Mosque. The fa├žade, which is completely hidden behind the awnings hung by shop keepers, mainly comprises a central entrance and a number of chambers at first storey level.
Present Condition
At present the building is being used as a religious school called Jamia Hamidia Taalim-ul-Quran. A flight of steep steps of white marble lead to the main temple hall. Front of roof is with false ceiling over wooden battens. Front door is solid wood carved. The Main hall is in relatively better condition but overall the building has developed serious structural cracks in walls and vaults and these pose a serious danger to the stability of the structure. If no remedial action is taken immediately, the building may collapse at any time causing much damage to life and property. The interior floor appears original, is laid in white and black marble however in a poor condition. Columns are octagonal with the plaster finish in a poor condition. Similarly the roof ceiling plaster is also in very poor condition. It is profusely decorated with Taksim Bandi on the roofs and Hindu motifs on the walls and niches. The roof structures are riddled with dangerous and deep cracks in all walls and running the length of the ceiling vaults. The external walls have cracks above all openings. Overall condition is extremely poor and the risk of collapse is high.
INTERVENTIONS
The temple is in a reasonable original condition with a large amount of original decorative features maintained despite the fact that a madrassa is functioning within the premises. Due to poor maintenance there are structural cracks and the building needs immediate stabilization measures. No serious intervention ever seems to have been made in this building ever since its construction. A few interventions that can be detected at present are the construction of a partition wall, a supporting wall for black-board or a small water tank. Leakages from the water taps and the sewage pipes, possibly installed recently by the Madrassa administration is causing damage to the structure.
Proposal
EPTB should immediately take control of this monument and try to restore it to its original form The building can be used as a small museum devoted to local crafts or representative of Hindu culture of Multan.
References
The only reference to this Mandar is found in Huq, p. 128 but it comprises a composite name of Mandar Anarsinghpuri wa Mandar Jain Suembra Chauri Sarai


Environmental Notes

  • Bohar Gate.
  • Vehicular Access / Parking
    Access is available through the bazaar street; no parking.
  • Use of Space
    The mandar is used as a school and madrassah for 100 students; adjacent rooms of the temple are used for commercial storage.
  • Visitor Facilities
    Toilets and ablution facilities have been installed.
  • Electricity
    Electricity is available with a KWH meter.
  • Sewerage
    Open drains run along Coti-Sirai Bazaar, they are very poorly maintained and are eroding the masonry.
  • Drainage
    Drainage flows from the main entrance of the temple (now closed) to the bazaar road.
  • Electricity
    Electric poles sit adjacent the gate, and the area around it is commercial, hence the place is well lit.
  • Solid Waste
    ASolid waste generated by the madrassah is deposited in the nearby streets. There are piles of building debris on the roof of the building, including garbage in the chamber of the mandar itself. Garbage has collected at the main entrance of the building which is now kept closed.
  • Pavement and surfaces
    Courtyard and verandah have marble tiled floors; terrace floor is PCC concrete.
  • External threats
    The AC unit of an adjacent building has been attached to the fabric of the mandar; vandalism.
  • Condition
    The central chamber is supported by brick pillars, the bases of which are eaten away by dampness. Walking on the 1st floor central portion causes vibrations as a result of deflection. Separation cracks are visible throughout, with serious cracks visible in the walls of the side chambers, major separation cracks above the openings of all rooms, in the recessed arches and walls. Dampness is rising in the walls and is aggravated where ablution area has been installed. The roof structures are riddled with dangerous and deep cracks in all walls and running the length of the ceiling vaults. The external walls have cracks above all openings. Overall condition is extremely poor and risk of collapse is high.
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3 comments:

  1. It is a pleasant surprise to see this old temple in a good condition. It will be nice if you could give the coordinates of its location. That will greatly help the visitors.

    tariqamir1015@gmail.com
    pakgeotagging.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  2. dude i could not locate it on map, please if you find it also share its location and masjid phool hathan location with me

    ReplyDelete
  3. Great place visited February 2016 .Location in Churri Wala Bazar Androon Sheher ..ask anyone Hanu Ka Chacjja

    ReplyDelete